Isaac Newton Vail (b.1840 Barnesville, OH, d. Jan 26, 1912 Pasadena, CA ) (Isaac N. Vail) was a quaker learned in mathematics, astronomy, Latin and Greek. He is known for his "Canopy Theory" who, "in 1886, had come to the conclusion that the Earth had once been girdled by a doughnut-like structure of ice crystals which, in keeping with Genesis 1:6-8, he alluded to as the firmament".
Alfred de Grazia in his book, Chaos and Creation, labels Vail as a prominent catastrophist.
- Waters above the Firmament (1874)
- Misread Record
- Eden's Flaming Sword
- The Ring of Truth
- The Heavens and Earth of Prehistoric Man
- Canopy Skies of Ancient Man
- A Glance at Compartive Mythology
- Celestial Records of the Orient
- Golden Age Canopy
- Mythic Mountains
- Donald L. Cyr, Waters above the Firmament, 1988, Stonehenge Viewpoint. IFFN 0140-654X
- Dwardu Cardona, "The Reflective Canopy Model and the Mytho-historical Record", Aeon IV:4 (Apr 1996)